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  •  Year 5 & 6 Spellings

    accommodate

    accompany

    according

    achieve

    aggressive

    amateur

    ancient

    apparent

    appreciate

    attached

    available

    average

    awkward

    bargain

    bruise

    category

    cemetery

    committee

    communicate

    community

    competition

    conscience*

    conscious*

    controversy

    convenience

    correspond

    criticise (critic + ise)

    curiosity

    definite

    desperate

    determined

    develop

    dictionary

    disastrous

    embarrass

    environment

    equip (–ped, –ment)

    especially

    exaggerate

    excellent

    existence

    explanation

    familiar

    foreign

    forty

    frequently

    government

    guarantee

    harass

    hindrance

    identity

    immediate(ly)

    individual

    interfere

    interrupt

    language

    leisure

    lightning

    marvellous

    mischievous

    muscle

    necessary

    neighbour

    nuisance

    occupy

    occur

    opportunity

    parliament

    persuade

    physical

    prejudice

    privilege

    profession

    programme

    pronunciation

    queue

    recognise

    recommend

    relevant

    restaurant

    rhyme

    rhythm

    sacrifice

    secretary

    shoulder

    signature

    sincere(ly)

    soldier

    stomach

    sufficient

    suggest

    symbol

    system

    temperature

    thorough

    twelfth

    variety

    vegetable

    vehicle

    yacht

     

     

  • Statutory requirements

     

    Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

    Example words (non‑statutory)

    Endings which sound like /ʃəs/ spelt –cious or –tious

     

    Not many common words end like this.

    If the root word ends in –ce, the /ʃ/ sound is usually spelt as c – e.g. vice – vicious,grace – gracious, space – spacious, malice – malicious.

    Exceptionanxious.

    vicious, precious, conscious, delicious, malicious, suspicious

    ambitious, cautious, fictitious, infectious, nutritious

    Endings which sound like /ʃəl/

     

    –cial is common after a vowel letter and –tial after a consonant letter, but there are some exceptions.

    Exceptions: initial, financial, commercial, provincial (the spelling of the last three is clearly related to finance, commerce andprovince).

    official, special, artificial, partial, confidential, essential

    Words ending in –ant,
    –ance/–ancy,
    –ent,
    –ence/–ency

     

    Use –ant and –ance/–ancy if there is a related word with a /æ/ or /eɪ/ sound in the right position; –ation endings are often a clue.


     

    Use –ent and –ence/–ency after soft c (/s/ sound), soft g (/dʒ/ sound) and qu, or if there is a related word with a clear /ɛ/ sound in the right position.

    There are many words, however, where the above guidance does not help. These words just have to be learnt.

    observant, observance, (observation), expectant (expectation), hesitant, hesitancy (hesitation), tolerant, tolerance (toleration), substance (substantial)

    innocent, innocence, decent, decency, frequent, frequency, confident, confidence (confidential)

    assistant, assistance, obedient, obedience, independent, independence

     

    Statutory requirements

     

    Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

    Example words (non‑statutory)

    Words ending in –able and
    –ible

    Words ending in –ably and
    –ibly

     

    The –able/–ably endings are far more common than the –ible/–ibly endings.

    As with –ant and –ance/–ancy, the –ableending is used if there is a related word ending in –ation.


     

    If the –able ending is added to a word ending in –ce or –ge, the e after the c or gmust be kept as those letters would otherwise have their ‘hard’ sounds (as incap and gap) before the a of the –ableending.

    The –able ending is usually but not always used if a complete root word can be heard before it, even if there is no related word ending in –ation. The first five examples opposite are obvious; in reliable, the complete word rely is heard, but the ychanges to i in accordance with the rule.

    The –ible ending is common if a complete root word can’t be heard before it but it also sometimes occurs when a complete word can be heard (e.g. sensible).

    adorable/adorably (adoration),

    applicable/applicably (application), considerable/considerably (consideration), tolerable/tolerably (toleration)

    changeable, noticeable, forcible, legible



     

    dependable, comfortable, understandable, reasonable, enjoyable, reliable



     

    possible/possibly, horrible/horribly, terrible/terribly, visible/visibly, incredible/incredibly, sensible/sensibly

    Adding suffixes beginning with vowel letters to words ending in –fer

     

    The r is doubled if the –fer is still stressed when the ending is added.
     

    The r is not doubled if the –fer is no longer stressed.

    referring, referred, referral, preferring, preferred, transferring, transferred

    reference, referee, preference, transference

    Use of the hyphen

     

    Hyphens can be used to join a prefix to a root word, especially if the prefix ends in a vowel letter and the root word also begins with one.

    co-ordinate, re-enter,
    co-operate, co-own

     

    Statutory requirements

     

    Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

    Example words (non‑statutory)

    Words with the /i:/ sound spelt ei after c

     

    The ‘i before e except after c’ rule applies to words where the sound spelt by ei is /i:/.

    Exceptionsprotein, caffeine, seize (andeither and neither if pronounced with an initial /i:/ sound).

    deceive, conceive, receive, perceive, ceiling

    Words containing the letter-string ough

     

    ough is one of the trickiest spellings in English – it can be used to spell a number of different sounds.

    ought, bought, thought, nought, brought, fought

    rough, tough, enough

    cough

    though, although, dough

    through

    thorough, borough

    plough, bough

    Words with ‘silent’ letters (i.e. letters whose presence cannot be predicted from the pronunciation of the word)

     

    Some letters which are no longer sounded used to be sounded hundreds of years ago: e.g. in knight, there was a /k/ sound before the /n/, and the gh used to represent the sound that ‘ch’ now represents in the Scottish word loch.

    doubt, island, lamb, solemn, thistle, knight

     

    Statutory requirements

     

    Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

    Example words (non‑statutory)

    Homophones and other words that are often confused

     

    In the pairs of words opposite, nouns end–ce and verbs end –seAdvice and adviseprovide a useful clue as the word advise(verb) is pronounced with a /z/ sound – which could not be spelt c.

     

    More examples:

    aisle: a gangway between seats (in a church, train, plane).
    isle: an island.

    aloud: out loud.
    allowed: permitted.

    affect: usually a verb (e.g. The weather may affect our plans).
    effect: usually a noun (e.g. It may have an effect on our plans). If a verb, it means ‘bring about’ (e.g. He will effect changes in the running of the business).

    altar: a table-like piece of furniture in a church.
    alter: to change.

    ascent: the act of ascending (going up).
    assent: to agree/agreement (verb and noun).

    bridal: to do with a bride at a wedding.
    bridle: reins etc. for controlling a horse.

    cereal: made from grain (e.g. breakfast cereal).
    serial: adjective from the noun series – a succession of things one after the other.

    compliment: to make nice remarks about someone (verb) or the remark that is made (noun).
    complement: related to the wordcomplete – to make something complete or more complete (e.g. her scarf complemented her outfit).

    advice/advise

    device/devise

    licence/license

    practice/practise

    prophecy/prophesy

     

    farther: further
    father: a male parent

    guessed: past tense of the verbguess
    guest: visitor

    heard: past tense of the verbhear
    herd: a group of animals

    led: past tense of the verb lead
    lead: present tense of that verb, or else the metal which is very heavy (as heavy as lead)

    morning: before noon
    mourning: grieving for someone who has died

    past: noun or adjective referring to a previous time (e.g. In the past) or preposition or adverb showing place (e.g. he walked past me)
    passed: past tense of the verb ‘pass’ (e.g. I passed him in the road)

    precede: go in front of or before
    proceed: go on

     

    Statutory requirements

     

    Rules and guidance (non‑statutory)

    Example words (non‑statutory)

    Homophones and other words that are often confused (continued)

     

    descent: the act of descending (going down).
    dissent: to disagree/disagreement (verb and noun).

    desert: as a noun – a barren place (stress on first syllable); as a verb – to abandon (stress on second syllable)
    dessert: (stress on second syllable) a sweet course after the main course of a meal.

    draft: noun – a first attempt at writing something; verb – to make the first attempt; also, to draw in someone (e.g. to draft in extra help)
    draught: a current of air.

    principal: adjective – most important (e.g. principal ballerina) noun – important person (e.g. principal of a college)
    principle: basic truth or belief

    profit: money that is made in selling things
    prophet: someone who foretells the future

    stationary: not moving
    stationery: paper, envelopes etc.

    steal: take something that does not belong to you
    steel: metal

    wary: cautious
    weary: tired

    who’s: contraction of who is orwho has
    whose: belonging to someone (e.g. Whose jacket is that?)

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